Category: Maternal Health

WHO recommendations on maternal and newborn care for a positive postnatal experience

Overview This guideline aims to improve the quality of essential, routine postnatal care for women and newborns with the ultimate goal of improving maternal and newborn health and well-being. It recognizes a “positive postnatal experience” as a significant end point for all women giving birth and their newborns, laying the platform for improved short- and long-term […]

Healthcare Utilization and Costs Associated With Perinatal Depression Among Medicaid Enrollees

Abstract Introduction: Differences in healthcare utilization and medical expenditures associated with perinatal depression are estimated. Methods: Using the MarketScan Multi-State Medicaid Database, the analytic cohort included individuals aged 15-44 years who had an inpatient live birth delivery hospitalization between January 1, 2017 and December 31, 2018. Multivariable negative binomial regression models were used to estimate the differences […]

The U.S. Maternal Mortality Rate Surged by Nearly 20% in 2020

The rate of maternal mortality in the U.S. increased by nearly 20% from 2019 to 2020 in a potential indication of the COVID-19 pandemic’s impact on maternal health outcomes.

Data in a new report published Wednesday by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention shows the overall maternal death rate in the U.S. rose from 20.1 deaths per 100,000 live births in 2019 to 23.8 deaths per 100,000 in 2020, marking an 18% increase. The rate has increased by nearly 37% since 2018, when there were 17.4 deaths for every 100,000 live births.

In total, 861 women in 2020 reportedly died either during or within 42 days of the end of their pregnancy, compared with 754 women in 2019 and 658 in 2018.

The report’s findings are based on data collected from the CDC’s National Vital Statistics System, and encompass maternal deaths linked to a pregnancy or its management. Deaths from accidental or incidental causes are not included.

Maternal mortality rates in 2020 went up across multiple age and racial groups in the report; notably, however, an “observed increase from 2019 to 2020 for non-Hispanic White women was not significant,” researchers said. The overall surge was fueled heavily by a spike in the rates for both Hispanic and Black women. Black women had the highest maternal mortality rate of the three racial or ethnic groups included, at 55.3 deaths for every 100,000 live births. That rate was nearly three times higher than the 19.1 deaths per 100,000 births among white women – a larger disparity than in 2019 – and more than three times higher than the rate of 18.2 deaths per 100,000 among Hispanic women.

Yet the maternal death rate among Hispanic women saw the largest increase from 2019 to 2020, rising by 44% over that year compared with an increase of 26% among Black women.

By age, women 40 and older had both the highest mortality rate and the largest increase from 2019. The maternal mortality rate for women 40 and older was 107.9 deaths for every 100,000 live births in 2020, a 43% increase from 2019 and 7.8 times higher than the rate of 13.8 per 100,000 live births for women under the age of 25. A rate increase among women under 25 was not statistically significant.

For years, the U.S. has had what can only be described as a poor record in maternal health outcomes when compared with other wealthy nations. A 2020 analysis by The Commonwealth Fund found that the 2018 U.S. maternal mortality rate of 17.4 deaths for every 100,000 live births was more than double the recent rates of a majority of other developed countries studied.

Tracking data from the CDC shows 82 deaths among pregnant women with the disease reportedly occurred in 2020. And though the latest figures do not delineate whether deaths occurred in connection with COVID-19, they come amid concern about both the direct and indirect health risks the COVID-19 pandemic has posed for pregnant women.

The CDC warns that pregnant or recently pregnant people are more likely to become severely ill from COVID-19. A CDC study published in November and focused on Mississippi also found a higher mortality rate among women with a coronavirus infection during pregnancy – none of whom had been fully vaccinated – compared with females of reproductive age who had a coronavirus infection.

The pandemic additionally disrupted maternal health care, leading to the alteration or cancellation of prenatal visits, hospitals enacting restrictions on who could be with a mother during delivery and even the shuttering of some birth-related services, at least temporarily. The number of home births rose by nearly 20% in 2020, from more than 38,000 in 2019 to more than 45,000.

Data also points to elevated levels of issues like depression and anxiety among many pregnant women during the pandemic.

“When we think about all of the stressors that a person felt even prior to the pandemic, adding all of these other things on top, it’s no surprise that we see an additive effect of the pandemic causing feelings of unsafety,” says Kristina Wint, senior program manager for reproductive and maternal health and wellness at the Association of Maternal and Child Health Programs. “Many people think that televisits is something that has been filling in the gaps, and it absolutely has, but they are just a Band-Aid on a broader and bigger issue on how (we can) ensure that people are able to access the care that they need.”

Maternal Deaths Rose During the First Year of the Pandemic

The number of women in the United States who died during pregnancy or shortly after giving birth increased sharply during the first year of the coronavirus pandemic, according to a new study, an increase that health officials attribute partly to Covid and pandemic-related disruptions.

The new report, from the National Center for Health Statistics, found that the number of maternal deaths rose 14 percent, to 861 in 2020 from 754 in 2019.

The United States already has a much higher maternal mortality rate than other developed countries, and the increase in deaths pushes the nation’s maternal mortality rate to 23.8 deaths per 100,000 live births in 2020 from 20.1 deaths in 2019. Maternal mortality rates in developed countries have in recent years ranged from fewer than two deaths per 100,000 live births in Norway and New Zealand to just below nine deaths per 100,000 live births in France and Canada.

Black women in America experienced the most deaths: One-third of the pregnant women and new mothers who died in 2020 were Black, though Black Americans make up just over 13 percent of the population. Their mortality rate was nearly three times that of white women.

The mortality rate for Hispanic women, which has historically been lower than for white women, also increased significantly in 2020 and is now almost on par with the rate for white women. Death rates increased among all pregnant women older than 24, but particularly in those 40 and over, whose mortality rate was nearly eight times that of women younger than 25.

“Our maternal morbidity and mortality is the highest in the developed world, and the trend is continuing despite our awareness of it, despite our maternal-mortality review committees, despite attention in the press,” said Kara Zivin, a professor of psychiatry, obstetrics and gynecology at the University of Michigan who studies access to care during and after pregnancy. “Whatever we’re doing is clearly not enough to address either the overall rate or the disparities.”

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Although the new report is sparse on details — no maternal mortality figures were provided for American Indian/Alaska Native women, who have higher pregnancy-related deaths than white, Hispanic and Asian/Pacific Islander women — experts said some of the deaths were most likely related to the coronavirus pandemic. Pregnancy puts women at risk for more severe disease if they are infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which causes Covid, and vaccines were not available for them in 2020.

Dr. Chaniece Wallace died in 2020 from pregnancy complications after delivering her first child.
Dr. Chaniece Wallace died in 2020 from pregnancy complications after delivering her first child.
Credit…Chaniece Wallace Memorial Facebook Page
“We actually said when the lockdown started that we anticipated an increase in maternal deaths, both due to Covid and the responses to Covid,” said Dr. Denise Jamieson, an obstetrician at Emory University in Atlanta and a member of the Covid expert group at the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, adding that she was not surprised by the increases.

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In addition to the greater risks faced by pregnant women who have Covid, she said, “we hadn’t figured out how to deliver obstetric care safely in 2020.”

“Our health systems weren’t set up yet to manage telehealth,” she said, “and there were other barriers: Kids were home from school, and parents couldn’t get away for medical appointments.”

Many doctors had stopped seeing patients in person, hospitals were often crowded and patients avoided emergency rooms filled with Covid patients.

Pregnant women who develop Covid face a higher risk of requiring intensive care or mechanical ventilation. And despite the relative youth of pregnant women, they face a higher risk of dying, studies found. Health experts have been urging them to be vaccinated, but their vaccination rates have remained low.

Black Americans overall suffered disproportionately from the pandemic, with higher hospitalization and death rates than their white counterparts, but the racial disparities in maternal mortality predate and extend beyond Covid, and stem from structural health inequities that have complex root causes.

Stress, mental health problems and substance abuse increased during the pandemic and might also have contributed to worse outcomes, said Dr. Mary D’Alton, chair of the department of obstetrics and gynecology at Columbia University Irving Medical Center.

New programs that provide enhanced services for patients, such as doulas, who can support and advocate for patients, are positive advances, she said.

“We also have to educate our providers on listening to patients,” Dr. D’Alton said. “My dad was a primary care doctor and he used to say, ‘Mary, if you want to know what’s wrong with the patient, ask them and they’ll tell you. But first of all, you’ve got to listen to them.’”

“Pregnant women’s complaints are often dismissed, and that is probably much more significant for Black and brown women,” she added.

Generally speaking, the leading causes of pregnancy-related deaths are cardiovascular conditions, other medical conditions and infections. Research has found that cardiomyopathy, a disease of the heart muscle; blood clots to the lung; and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy contribute to a higher proportion of pregnancy-related deaths among Black women than among white women.

One of the new mothers who died in 2020, whose story was widely reported, was Dr. Chaniece Wallace, a Black physician who was the chief pediatric resident at the Indiana University School of Medicine in Indianapolis.

Dr. Wallace developed a pregnancy complication called pre-eclampsia and her baby girl was delivered early by cesarean section in October 2020. But Dr. Wallace went on to develop additional complications, and she died just days after giving birth.

What States Can Do to Improve Black Maternal Mental Health

Looking back at the events and coverage of Black Maternal Mental Health Week (July 19–25), it is clear that the nation’s policymakers need to do more to ensure that Black mothers have the care they need to survive and thrive during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond.

Being a mother during the pandemic extracts a heavy mental health toll, particularly for Black mothers. Even before the pandemic, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), one in eight women experienced postpartum depression, and nearly 50 percent of pregnant women with depression went without treatment. Black women in particular often experienced varying forms of depression, anxiety, and mood disorders during pregnancy and after birth. And during the pandemic response Black mothers who were pregnant or gave birth likely experienced increased mental stresses with isolating medical facility policies, exposure to racial violence and protests, and quarantine from support systems.

To address the maternal mental health crisis among Black mothers, policymakers must permanently extend postpartum Medicaid coverage—including mental health coverage—in all states for the full year of the postpartum period. Access to quality health care through Medicaid must include the full benefits of prenatal and postnatal visits with consistent and multiple mental health screenings before and during the postpartum period. As part of this initiative, community-based organizations and care providers that have supported Black women and families during their mental health journey during childbirth and beyond have an important role to play in improving outcomes.

Current State Investments in Maternal Mental Health Programs
In March of 2021, the American Rescue Plan Act provided the option for states to extend Medicaid postpartum coverage—including mental health coverage—to twelve months after birth, through a State Plan Amendment. Fully extended postpartum coverage—as called for by the U.S. surgeon general—could address the high rate of maternal mortality that occurs during the full year after birth. (It is important to note here that, while there is a push for stronger data collection on maternal deaths, self-harm deaths in the pregnancy to postpartum period are omitted from published maternal mortality data.) States currently observe different timeframes for the postpartum period, but an increasing number recognize the need for longer Medicaid coverage, with Georgia recently extending coverage from sixty days to six months, and Maine phasing up to twelve months by 2023. Access to quality maternity mental health care is critically important to improve health outcomes, as nearly 60 percent of pregnancy-related deaths during the postpartum period are preventable.

Prior to the incentives initiated by the Biden–Harris administration, states had the opportunity to extend Medicaid coverage by using the Center for Medicaid Services 1115 waiver process to pilot demonstration programs without legislative change. Furthermore, for some states that have not extended postpartum Medicaid coverage, certain other 1115 waivers provide limited coverage for postpartum mental health services. Missouri currently has an approved 1115 waiver to offer coverage for a limited population of postpartum individuals for substance use disorders and maternal mental health treatment. South Carolina offers similar coverage, with a statewide cap of only 500 postpartum participants with substance use disorders or serious mental illness. Recently approved 1115 waivers may have extended coverage for varying time frames during the postpartum period, but unfortunately they also create more restrictions for postpartum individuals. California takes a different approach with state-funded postpartum coverage for individuals diagnosed with maternal mental health conditions such as postpartum depression.
The Important Role of Community-Based Organizations and Managed Care Organizations
Extending Medicaid coverage in each state is essential but not sufficient to improve Black maternal mental health. Community-based organizations and other providers of support to birthing people have unique ways in which they can address maternal mental health needs. A local approach to maternal mental health respects relationships of community members and clients and creates an environment where hyper-localized interventions can utilize evidence-based models for specialized care. In efforts to address racial bias and inequity in health care and American society more broadly, it is vital that all community-based organizations providing maternal mental health care to women of color examine racial history in maternity care and the impacts of community health interventions on families. The history that built mistrust of government health and child welfare programs in communities of color is often rooted in parent–child separation policies through child protection services and criminal justice systems. Aggressive anti-substance use laws and surveillance created a landscape where Black, Indigenous, and People of Color (BIPOC) communities experience the highest rates of children removed from a parent’s care. When reporting a maternal mental health concern, women of color and families report feeling unheard by providers, even after many visits, leaving gaps in treatment and diagnosis.

Mental health support groups and organizations located in communities, particularly those led by Black women or people of color, often offer culturally responsive and integrated mental health services and thus garner the trust of the women they serve. Black-women-led organizations have created a nexus where reproductive justice and maternal mental health support intersect through avenues of movement building, holistic wellness services, community-based research, and advocacy. Interactive online and media platforms used by these organizations have expanded the ways in which women of color can find relatable support and resources, such as lactation support for mothers experiencing postpartum depression and community networks for discussion of shared experiences.

Some states have implemented models of care that integrate these specific community needs, such as home visiting programs that train community care workers to reflect cultural norms and use multiple mental health screening tools during perinatal and postpartum home visits. Minnesota guidance, for example, emphasizes knowledge of local resources and developing a plan to “include a combination of resources to address depression and support wellbeing.” North Carolina offers out-patient and in-patient treatment for pregnant women and women with children who experience substance use. Managed Care Organizations (MCO) in Georgia employ Resource Mother Outreach services to help schedule appointments and apply for social services for qualifying postpartum mothers and babies. But more can be done by states —and by Congress—to integrate the lessons learned by community and managed care organizations that have been supporting Black mothers’ mental health.

What the States and Congress Should Do
Medicaid is the largest payer for mental health support in the United States. Right now, state policymakers have more opportunities than ever to address maternal mental health by taking advantage of diverse federal funding for public health care that may significantly reduce the strain on state budgets. But, despite the arrival of these federal incentives, and the coverage gaps that currently exist in states that so far have declined to expand Medicaid, some policymakers have refused to make the right choice because the issue has become highly politicized.

Put simply, policymakers should end the political jockeying over whether or not to make fundamental health care accessible and instead make a choice that enhances the quality of life so that Black communities no longer have to watch their families and mothers suffer from preventable conditions during the postpartum period. The remaining states that have not expanded Medicaid coverage perpetuate a coverage gap of uninsured or under-insured individuals that may not have access to public or private health care and are often burdened with high medical costs. While some federal policymakers are working to create alternative public health care programs similar to Medicaid in these non-expansion states for those residents, the option still remains for these states to receive funding for Medicaid expansion with a generous federal matching rate. States who have not yet expanded Medicaid should do so immediately. Furthermore, all states—whether they have expanded Medicaid yet or not, should take the federal government’s offer in the American Rescue Plan Act to pay for extending Medicaid postpartum coverage to the first twelve months after delivery.

Apart from Medicaid, the proposed federal package of bills known as the Black Maternal Health Momnibus Act of 2021 has potential to build on current legislation and programs to comprehensively address the Black Maternal Health crisis. Congress should consider all twelve bills within the Momnibus that span issues including climate change, improvements in data collection and research, diversity in the perinatal workforce, technology, and maternal mental health. The Momnibus also makes significant investments in community-based organizations that will assist in direct services to birthing people across populations including veterans, Native and Tribal communities, and incarcerated people. The Moms Matter Act within the Momnibus invests in community-based programs that provide mental and behavioral health treatments for those experiencing maternal mental health conditions or substance use disorders. The bill also includes funding to diversify the maternal mental and behavioral health care workforce and expand culturally congruent care models.

As states seek to use these new resources—from Medicaid expansion, from extension of postpartum coverage to twelve months, and potentially from parts of the Momnibus—leading state health agencies, study committees, insurance providers, and care providers should continuously, and equitably, engage with community-based organizations and allow their insights to inform policy change using a health equity lens. Maternal Mortality Review Committees (MMRCs), currently operating in most states, offer state-specific data on pregnancy-related and associated deaths. The composition of MMRCs, their practices around disaggregation of demographic data, and their frequency of reporting, however, vary from state to state. These discrepancies and the lack of standardization among MMRCs limits the opportunity to understand current maternal health information. State health agencies and MMRCs should expand data collection to community-based organizations and include metrics that reflect maternal mental health data.

State funding opportunities for public health, similar to the Maternal and Child Health Block Grant Program, should include community-based organizations and care providers as recipients, with a strong preference for entities that provide culturally congruent and holistic care that is reflective of community needs. Providers should also coordinate care with local programs exercising evidence-based care models that are culturally reflective, such as in-home visiting programs and therapy models.

Though extensive research and care models exist for perinatal and infant mental health, care providers should also prioritize maternal mental health from the perspective of birthing persons and caretakers from pregnancy through postpartum. Health care providers who treat pregnant and postpartum individuals should screen for an array of mood disorders throughout the postpartum period. Thirty-four states and the District of Columbia include postpartum mental health screening as a Medicaid benefit to identify postpartum depression. Beyond screening, state Medicaid needs to offer comprehensive, full benefits to support treatment and recovery.
As we reflect on this year’s Black Maternal Mental Health Week, the work to reach mothers and families suffering after birth continues. Family members, care workers, and nurses at postnatal visits are the first to interact with mothers who may be experiencing the “baby blues.” From a systemic view, this local interaction has rippling impacts on health care costs, public health interventions, and community-coordinated care. Community-based organizations are often on the frontlines offering direct services to address maternal mental health. States must institutionalize engagement with these groups to garner informed recommendations that reflect the needs and outcomes of each community member.

Expanding Postpartum Medicaid Coverage

High rates of preventable maternal mortality and morbidity and wide racial and ethnic disparities have caught the attention of clinicians, public health practitioners, advocates, and policymakers.1 In the closing days of the Trump Administration, HHS released an action plan to improve maternal health, and President-elect Biden has cited this topic as a key health care issue. Vice President-elect Harris has been an advocate in the Senate for improving maternal health, particularly stemming the disproportionately high rates of maternal mortality and morbidity among Black women, and may continue to champion this work at the Executive Branch. During the 2019-2020 Congressional session, more than a dozen bills across political lines related to maternal health outcomes, care, and coverage were introduced, and many could be re-introduced when the new Congress is seated. Several federal and state efforts aim to address the postpartum period, the time shortly after the birth of an infant, an important but often neglected element of maternity care. Birthing parents may be dealing with a host of medical conditions, such as complications from childbirth, pain, depression or anxiety, all while caring for a newborn. It can be a medically vulnerable period and many cases of maternal mortality occur in the postpartum period.

While Medicaid pays for more than four in ten births and must cover pregnant women through 60 days postpartum, after that period states can and have made very different choices regarding whether eligibility for Medicaid coverage is continued. In states that have not expanded Medicaid under the Affordable Care Act (ACA), many women are left without a pathway to coverage and become uninsured just two months after giving birth. Recently, there has been growing interest from federal and state policymakers, clinicians, and health advocates in expanding Medicaid’s postpartum coverage from 60 days to one year. This brief discusses Medicaid’s eligibility for pregnancy and postpartum care, describes gaps in coverage particularly for low-income women who live in states that have not expanded Medicaid under the ACA, and highlights several state and federal efforts to extend postpartum coverage for a longer period of time.

What is Medicaid’s role for pregnancy and postpartum care?
Medicaid has long prioritized coverage of pregnant women and now finances more than four in ten births in the United States.2 Federal law requires that all states extend eligibility for pregnant women with incomes up to 138% of the federal poverty level (FPL); however, most states (48 and DC) go beyond this minimum threshold, ranging from 138% to 380% FPL. Pregnancy-related coverage must last through 60 days postpartum and the infant is eligible for Medicaid for the first year after birth. For women who qualify for Medicaid on the basis of pregnancy, all states provide pregnant women with a wide range of Medicaid benefits, including prenatal care, childbirth and delivery services. States have discretion to determine specific maternity care benefits under Medicaid. For example, many states cover substance use treatment and home visiting services but fewer cover other services such as doula care and home births.

For pregnant women who are eligible for Medicaid under the ACA’s Medicaid expansion pathway, states must cover all preventive services recommended by the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) including many pregnancy-related services, such as prenatal screening tests and folic acid supplements as well as services in the postpartum period, such as lactation consultation and breastfeeding supplies. Importantly, all states cover family planning services before and after pregnancy. Pregnancy-related services for those enrolled under any Medicaid pathway are exempt from cost-sharing. For low-income people in particular, the lower cost sharing and absence of deductibles under Medicaid can be a major advantage over private insurance.

Where are the gaps in coverage during the postpartum period?
Following the 60 days postpartum period, mothers with incomes up to 138% FPL in the states that have expanded Medicaid under the ACA (38 states and DC) have a continued pathway to coverage. Those with incomes above 138% FPL may qualify for subsidized coverage through the ACA Marketplace. However, in the 12 states that have not adopted the ACA’s Medicaid expansion, postpartum women could qualify for Medicaid as parents to stay on the program, but Medicaid income eligibility levels for parents are much lower than for pregnant people in all of the states (Figure 1). As a result, many women in non-expansion states become uninsured after pregnancy-related coverage ends 60 days postpartum because, even though they are poor, their income is still too high to qualify for Medicaid as parents and too low to qualify for Marketplace subsidies. For example, in Texas, a married mother with a newborn loses Medicaid coverage two months after giving birth if she and her partner have an annual income above $3,733 (17% FPL).

Figure 1: Medicaid Eligibility Is Much More Restrictive for Parents than Pregnant Women, Particularly in States that Have Not Expanded Medicaid

Research shows that Medicaid coverage is higher and uninsured rates are lower among women before and after pregnancy in expansion states compared to non-expansion states (Figure 2). As shown in Figure 2, coverage patterns are similar during pregnancy between expansion and non-expansion states. After pregnancy, however, Medicaid coverage declines and the uninsured rate climbs, with the effect more pronounced in non-expansion states.3

Figure 2: In Expansion States, Higher Rates of Medicaid Coverage and Fewer Uninsured Among Postpartum Women

Furthermore, many women in non-expansion states who do not qualify for Medicaid after 60 days postpartum may also not qualify for subsidies to assist with the purchase of private insurance in state Marketplaces because they have incomes between the income limit for parents and 100% FPL, leaving them in the “coverage gap” with few options for affordable coverage.

How has the coronavirus affected postpartum coverage?
The Families First Coronavirus Recovery Act (FFCRA) includes an enhanced federal match (FMAP) to states, contingent on meeting maintenance of eligibility (MOE) requirements that include ensuring continuous coverage for enrollees until the end of the month in which the public health emergency (PHE) is in place. Under earlier guidance issued by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), someone qualifying on the basis of pregnancy would remain enrolled in that group, even after the 60 days postpartum period. Under a new interim final rule effective on November 2, states can move a pregnant woman from the pregnancy group to another eligibility pathway if eligible for another full benefit group, such as ACA expansion, and the benefit package for the new group is the same or more generous than the pregnant woman benefit package, move to new group. However, if the pregnancy benefit package is more generous than another pathway or the person is ineligible for any other full benefit group, they would remain enrolled in pregnancy group.

In addition to changing eligibility for coverage, the coronavirus pandemic has changed the way pregnancy and postpartum care is provided. New mothers may be more isolated from postpartum support, such as family members or doulas and women may be accessing services such as lactation consultations or postpartum checkups via telehealth. Continuity of coverage may be even more valuable given the other disruptions in care that new parents may be facing during the pandemic.4

Why is coverage for postpartum care important?
Postpartum care encompasses a range of important health needs, including recovery from childbirth, follow up on pregnancy complications, management of chronic health conditions, access to family planning, and addressing mental health conditions. While postpartum care has traditionally centered around one clinical visit six to eight weeks after delivery, there has been a paradigm shift to emphasize that postpartum care is an ongoing process that typically requires multiple visits and follow up care that may last a year or even longer. This is particularly important for those who experience pregnancy complications or have chronic conditions, such as hypertension or diabetes.

Mental health is a major concern during and after pregnancy. Suicidality among pregnant and postpartum people has risen over the past decade. At least one in ten women experience perinatal depression, and some studies suggest higher rates but poorer access to treatments among some communities of color and low-income women. ACOG recommends screening during the postpartum visit and initiation of treatment or referral to a mental health provider when a woman is identified with depression. This kind of care may be provided over a long duration, often lasting beyond 60 days.

Addressing pregnancy-related deaths (typically defined as death within one year of pregnancy)5, particularly the substantially higher rates among Black and American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) women, is an urgent health challenge.6 At least one-third of maternal deaths occur in the postpartum period. Identifying the causes of maternal mortality and morbidity is complex, and coverage is only one factor, but research strongly indicates that access to health care throughout a woman’s reproductive years, is essential for prevention, early detection, and treatment of some of the conditions that place women at higher risk for pregnancy-related complications, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and chronic hypertension. Coverage disruptions during the perinatal period disproportionately affect Black, AIAN, and Hispanic women. Furthermore, a wide array of conditions that may present or persist through the postpartum period, including mental health challenges, intimate partner violence, and substance use, all play a role in maternal mortality and broader maternal health outcomes.

What can states do to extend postpartum coverage under Medicaid?
Assuring that low-income women have continuous coverage after pregnancy would support improvements in infant and maternal outcomes. States have several main pathways for broadening coverage in the postpartum period to Medicaid beneficiaries. These would all involve some increase in state spending, but with substantial federal matching funds available as well. Potential approaches, in decreasing order of scope and reach, include:

Expand full scope Medicaid–Expanding Medicaid eligibility under ACA would provide the most comprehensive approach to broadening postpartum coverage, and the federal government would pay 90% of the costs for the expansion population. Postpartum women with incomes up to 138% FPL would be able to retain Medicaid past 60 days postpartum, providing greater continuity of coverage and care. Furthermore, other individuals with incomes up to 138% FPL would also qualify for Medicaid coverage, expanding Medicaid benefits to mothers and fathers as well as people without children, including those who intend to become pregnant and need preconception care. Research demonstrates the impact of Medicaid expansion on pregnancy-related coverage and care to date. One study found that Medicaid expansion was associated with lower maternal mortality rates compared to non-expansion states.7 Full Medicaid expansion would also narrow the coverage gap in non-expansion states for poor parents who do not qualify for either Medicaid or subsidies in the Marketplace. Research from the Urban Institute suggests that at least a quarter of uninsured new mothers would likely newly qualify for Medicaid postpartum if their state expanded Medicaid.
Raise parental income eligibility levels under Medicaid– Short of full expansion, non-expansion states have another tool at their disposal to narrow the postpartum coverage cliff– raising income eligibility thresholds for parents, which is one of the pre-ACA eligibility categories. States set income eligibility levels for Medicaid. Raising the eligibility thresholds for parents could extend Medicaid eligibility to more low-income mothers and fathers and partially close the coverage gap in non-expansion states. Currently, Wisconsin sets eligibility thresholds for parents at 100% FPL and Tennessee is not far behind at 93% FPL (Table 1). The rest of the non-expansion states are much more restrictive however and currently have large gaps in coverage for parents. States would receive their regular federal match rate for any new enrollees who qualify as a result of higher parental eligibility levels.
Extend pregnancy-related Medicaid coverage beyond 60 days postpartum– A number of states, both expansion and non-expansion, are taking action to try to extend the period of Medicaid postpartum eligibility, but the initiatives vary in scope.8,9 Some states are applying for Section 1115 waivers from CMS to extend Medicaid beyond 60 days postpartum. Georgia, a non-expansion state, enacted legislation to extend postpartum coverage from 60 days to six months for those who had a Medicaid funded birth, and the state has submitted a waiver application to CMS. Even in Medicaid expansion states, postpartum women may lose Medicaid coverage postpartum, particularly if their incomes are above 138% FPL, and need to transition to Marketplace insurance. Even with a premium subsidy, some may find the out of pocket costs unaffordable and they may have to change providers with a coverage transition. Some expansion states, such as Illinois and New Jersey, are also seeking waivers from CMS to extend Medicaid’s postpartum period so that low-income postpartum women at income levels above 138% FPL keep their Medicaid coverage beyond two months postpartum.
Expand coverage for specific postpartum services or specific populations- There has been some interest in broadening Medicaid postpartum coverage for specific health needs. The HHS maternal health action plan recommends supporting policies that allow states to maintain coverage for pregnant and postpartum people with substance use disorders. The postpartum period can be a particularly susceptible time for substance use relapse, with loss of coverage and access to care considered a potential trigger for relapse. Missouri and Indiana have submitted waiver applications to CMS that propose Medicaid postpartum extension to 12 months for postpartum women in need of services for substance use. Missouri’s waiver would allow postpartum women to continue to receive substance use and mental health services for a year, while Indiana’s proposal would extend full Medicaid coverage for those with opioid use disorder. Additionally, both states participate in CMS’ Maternal Opioid Misuse (MOM) model, a funding initiative that the agency offers for states to develop and improve programs to care for pregnant and postpartum people with opioid use disorder.
Some states have used state dollars to extend postpartum coverage to certain populations. California enacted legislation and is using state funds to extend Medicaid coverage to a year for postpartum individuals diagnosed with a maternal mental health condition. Since September 2020, the state of Texas has been using state funds to provide a limited package of postpartum services for one year to those enrolled in the state’s Healthy Texas Women program, which is for uninsured reproductive age women. The state has submitted a Section 1115 waiver application to CMS to draw down federal funds for this program.
Provide postpartum coverage for family planning services – Outside of lengthening the postpartum period under Medicaid, half of states provide Medicaid coverage for just family planning services to individuals who do not qualify for full Medicaid coverage. While these programs do not provide coverage that is as comprehensive as full scope Medicaid, they provide access to postpartum and intrapartum contraceptive services, which is important for pregnancy planning and healthy birth spacing. Most of the non-expansion states have a Medicaid or state-funded family planning program (Figure 3). However, in three states – Tennessee, Kansas, and South Dakota – postpartum individuals who were covered by Medicaid for pregnancy likely become uninsured after 60 days because the state has not expanded Medicaid under the ACA, and may not even have access to contraceptive services after pregnancy because the state does not have a Medicaid-funded family planning program.

Figure 3: State Decisions on Medicaid Expansion and Family Planning Programs Affect Women’s Access to Postpartum Care

What legislative proposals are currently being considered at the federal level to broaden postpartum coverage and strengthen maternity care?
In the 2019-2020 Congressional session, a number of federal bills related to maternal health care coverage, access, and quality are pending. Major themes across these bills include extension of Medicaid postpartum coverage to 12 months, coverage of doulas, greater support for state maternal mortality review committees, broadening provider networks in rural areas, and training on health equity and implicit bias for providers. Some notable federal bills that have garnered attention include:

H.R. 4996 Helping Medicaid Offer Maternity Services (MOMS) Act of 2019 (sponsored by Rep. Robin Kelly), would amend the Medicaid program to allow states the option to extend continuous coverage with full benefits for postpartum individuals through one year postpartum. The bill was approved unanimously by voice vote in the House, and while many advocates and policymakers called for the Senate to pass the bill before the end of the 2019-2020 session, it was not passed.
H.R. 1425, Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act Enhancement Act – This bill focuses on strengthening the ACA, but also includes a change to the postpartum period under Medicaid from 60 days to a full year. This differs from the Helping MOMS Act, which proposes a state option, while this bill requires mandatory 12 months postpartum coverage in all states. There would likely be significant differences in financing and access to care between proposals that create a mandatory expansion versus a state option, which some states would not adopt.10 A CBO analysis of the coverage extension in HR 1425 estimates a resulting $6 billion increase in the deficit over ten years. The bill passed the full House of Representatives in June 2020.
H.R. 6142 – The MOMNIBUS is a package of nine bills sponsored by the Black Maternal Health Caucus in the House of Representatives and Vice-President elect Kamala Harris in the Senate. It is intended to improve different aspects of maternal health care for pregnant people, with a focus on health equity. Key components in the package include an extension of WIC benefits for one year postpartum, measures to diversify the perinatal workforce, funding to enhance maternal mortality committees and data collection, and mitigating the impact of social determinants of health. The MOMNIBUS has not yet been heard in a House committee.
As President-elect Biden, Vice President-elect Harris, and a new Congress come into office, maternal health, particularly large and persistent racial and ethnic inequities, continues to be a major health challenge. Coverage changes alone cannot address these issues, but given Medicaid’s large role in maternity financing and health coverage for communities of color, an extension of postpartum coverage for the full year after a Medicaid birth could provide stable coverage and care to more low-income birthing parents in both non-expansion and expansion states. For birthing parents, the need for health care services does not end two months after childbirth.

The ACA offers states the option to extend Medicaid eligibility to low-income parents with incomes up to 138% of the federal poverty level. However, in the 12 states that have not adopted full scope Medicaid expansion, most postpartum women lack a pathway to coverage and are at greater risk of becoming uninsured and losing access to critical health services in the postpartum and intrapartum periods. Some federal and state-level initiatives are in place to provide coverage for family planning or other more limited services to some reproductive age and postpartum people, but they do not provide the same level of coverage afforded by full scope Medicaid. Absent federal action, these decisions will continue to be in the hands of the states to decide whether to choose from among a number of pathways to expand coverage for new parents.

Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) in Pregnancy

ABSTRACT: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant yet preventable public health problem that affects millions of women regardless of age, economic status, race, religion, ethnicity, sexual orientation, or educational background. Individuals who are subjected to IPV may have lifelong consequences, including emotional trauma, lasting physical impairment, chronic health problems, and even death. Although women of […]